This issue is reproduced following steps:
Setup Geoserver with app-schema and solr modules on Apache Tomcat 7.x (This issue only happens on tomcat setup)
Creating an app-schema layer with solr index.
Delete Default style xml element from related layer.xml file.
On Geoserver startup, it will try to load the layer for generating default style, but we'll get this exception:
Looking into the code seems like solrFeatureTypeCallback bean has 'catalog' bean as constructor dependency and some business logic in constructor.