When these conditions are met:
Feature source contains multi* geometries (MultiPolygon, Multiline, ...)
rendering at so a small scale that the geometry should not be drawn at all
the feature source simplifies these geometries to empty geometries instead of providing a null value.
Rendering involves a coordinate transformation that at some point involves a geographic CRS.
The 0,0 coordinate in the source CRS is close to the pole.
When the renderer reads the geometry, the source simplifies it to EMPTY geometry, the envelope of such a geometry is located at 0,0 of the original CRS, which actually is the pole and makes the transformation to the geographic CRS fail.